B2QT Build Release
1 About Boot to Qt
Boot to Qt is a light-weight, Qt-optimized, full software stack for embedded Linux systems that is installed into the actual target device.
The stack can be customized to production with Build-Your-Own-Stack tooling, including proprietary Yocto Project recipes.
The full B2Qt documentation is available at Qt for Device Creation official page.
Please make sure your host PC is running Ubuntu 64-bit and is up to date:
$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
Then, install the following packages:
$ sudo apt-get install gawk wget git git-lfs diffstat unzip texinfo gcc-multilib \ build-essential chrpath socat cpio python python3 python3-pip python3-pexpect \ xz-utils debianutils iputils-ping libsdl1.2-dev xterm libyaml-dev libssl-dev $ sudo apt-get install autoconf libtool libglib2.0-dev libarchive-dev \ sed cvs subversion coreutils texi2html docbook-utils python-pysqlite2 \ help2man make gcc g++ g++-multilib desktop-file-utils libgl1-mesa-dev libglu1-mesa-dev \ mercurial automake groff curl lzop asciidoc u-boot-tools dos2unix mtd-utils pv \ libncurses5 libncurses5-dev libncursesw5-dev libelf-dev zlib1g-dev bc rename \ zstd libgnutls28-dev $ sudo apt-get install python-git
3 Setting Up Yocto Build Environment
Run the setup script that initializes the Yocto environment.
$ mkdir -p ~/var-b2qt/sources/ $ cd ~/var-b2qt/sources/ $ git clone https://github.com/varigit/meta-variscite-boot2qt.git -b sumo-var01 $ cd .. $ ./sources/meta-variscite-boot2qt/b2qt-init-build-env init --device imx8qm-var-som
b2qt-init-build-env has the following additional command line options:
- list-devices: show all supported devices that can be used for a Boot to Qt build
- mirror: create a local mirror of the yocto repositories. This enables you to use the same repository downloads for multiple build environments, when initializing with init --reference <mirror path>.
For all command line options, see:
$ ./sources/meta-variscite-boot2qt/b2qt-init-build-env help
4 Building the Image and Toolchain
After the Yocto environment is set up, you need to configure the build environment for your target device:
$ MACHINE=imx8qm-var-som source ./setup-environment.sh
Yocto recipes for Boot to Qt for embedded Linux have two main targets to build: The target image, and the external toolchain that can be used with Qt Creator for building Qt applications.
$ MACHINE=imx8qm-var-som bitbake b2qt-embedded-qt5-image $ MACHINE=imx8qm-var-som bitbake meta-toolchain-b2qt-embedded-qt5-sdk
The target rootfs image is located at:
and the new toolchain installation file is:
4.1 Build Results
The resulting images are located in tmp/deploy/images/imx8qm-var-som.
||How to use|
|b2qt-embedded-qt5-image-imx8qm-var-som.wic||This image is for SD card boot.|
It can be flashed as-is on an SD card that can then be used to boot your system,
according to the relevant startup-guide of your product
(usually requires to press the boot select button, or toggle a DIP switch).
For detailed information refer to the Create a bootable SD card section below.
|b2qt-embedded-qt5-image-imx8qm-var-som.tar.gz||Tarball with rootfs files.|
Can be used to create an NFS root file system on the host.
See the Yocto Setup TFTP/NFS section for more info.
Also used to create our extended SD card.
See the Create a bootable SD card section below.
|Image.gz||Linux kernel image, same binary for SD card and eMMC.|
|imx-boot-sd.bin||U-Boot built for SD card boot or eMMC boot.|
|Image.gz-fsl-imx8qm-var-som-dp.dtb||DTB file for VAR-SOM-MX8 with DP display|
|Image.gz-fsl-imx8qm-var-som-hdmi.dtb||DTB file for VAR-SOM-MX8 with HDMI display|
|Image.gz-fsl-imx8qm-var-som-lvds.dtb||DTB file for VAR-SOM-MX8 with LVDS display|
|Image.gz-fsl-imx8qm-var-spear-dp.dtb||DTB file for SPEAR-MX8 with DP display|
|Image.gz-fsl-imx8qm-var-spear-hdmi.dtb||DTB file for SPEAR-MX8 with HDMI display|
|Image.gz-fsl-imx8qm-var-spear-lvds.dtb||DTB file for SPEAR-MX8 with LVDS display|
Similar device trees with "imx8qp-" instead of "imx8qm-" are also generated, for SOMs with the i.MX8QP variant of the SoC.
5 Create a bootable SD card
5.1 SD card structure
This is the structure of our Recovery/Extended SD card:
The SD card is divided into 2 sections as shown in the picture above:
- The first unallocated 8MiB section reserved for U-Boot. It can be replaced using the dd commandas described in the Yocto Build U-Boot section.
- The first partition is an ext4 partition that contains the complete root filesystem (including kernel image and device tree files under /boot).
The last unallocated area is not used. It is there so that the rootfs will fit on any 4GB SD card, as not all 4GB SD cards are really the same size. If you want, you can use a program such as GParted to resize the roofs partition and make it end at the end of your specific SD card (of course, you can also use SD cards with much bigger capacity than 4GB, and then it makes more sense to resize the partition).
Also, if you create the extended SD card yourself by following the Create an extended SD card section below, and you use the '-a' option, the rootfs partition will end at the end of your specific SD card automatically.
5.2 B2Qt pre-built bootable SD card
The B2Qt build products contains a complete image to be flashed directly to an SD card.
$ sudo umount /dev/sdX* $ sudo dd if=tmp/deploy/images/imx8qm-var-som/b2qt-embedded-qt5-image-imx8qm-var-som.wic of=/dev/sdX bs=1M && sync
Replace sdX with the right device name. This can be obtained by "dmesg" command on your host Linux PC, after the SD card reader is inserted.
- Note: Booting your system from an SD card requires pressing the boot-select button, or switching the relevant DIP switch to "Boot from SD card", according to the relevant start-up guide of your system
Drawbacks of the native .wic b2qt-built image, (relative to the Recovery/Extended SD card):
- The rootfs partition doesn't use the entire SD card.
- The rootfs partition is not labeled as rootfs.
- The NAND flash and eMMC installation scripts and images are not included.
5.3 Create an extended SD card
Variscite provides the var-create-yocto-sdcard.sh script which creates our NAND/eMMC recovery SD card. The script copies the NAND/eMMC flash burning scripts and relevant binaries for your convenience.
Later, you will be able to follow Boot2QT Recovery SD card guide to burn your images to NAND flash or eMMC.
This is essentially the same as our pre-built Recovery SD image, with the following main differences:
- The pre-built image's rootfs partition size is 3700MiB, which is also the default size when using the script, but the script also has an option to set the rootfs partition size to fill the whole free space of the used SD card. Anyway, you can always resize the partition later with an external tool such as gparted.
Naturally, the pre-built image is more straight forward and easier to use, while the script method is easier to customize.
- Follow the Setup and build Yocto guide, and bitbake b2qt-embedded-qt5-image.
- Plug-in the SD card to your Linux HOST PC, run dmesg and see which device is added (i.e. /dev/sdX or /dev/mmcblkX)
$ cd ~/var-b2qt $ sudo MACHINE=imx8qm-var-som sources/meta-variscite-imx/scripts/var_mk_yocto_sdcard/var-create-yocto-sdcard.sh /dev/sdX Replace /dev/sdX with your actual device name, e.g. /dev/sdb
5.3.1 Create an extended SD card image using a loop device
It is also possible to use the var-create-yocto-sdcard.sh script to create an extended SD card image, while using a loop device instead of attaching a real SD card.
$ cd ~/var-b2qt
Create an empty file using the following command:
$ dd if=/dev/zero of=imx8qm-var-som-extended-sd.img bs=1M count=3720
The above command creates a 3720MiB file representing the SD card.
Attach the first available loop device to this file:
$ sudo losetup -Pf imx8qm-var-som-extended-sd.img
To find the actual loop device being used, run:
$ losetup -a | grep imx8qm-var-som-extended-sd.img
Write the content to the loop device to generate the SD card image:
$ sudo MACHINE=imx8qm-var-som sources/meta-variscite-imx/scripts/var_mk_yocto_sdcard/var-create-yocto-sdcard.sh <options> /dev/loopX
(Replace /dev/loopX with your actual loop device, e.g. /dev/loop0)
Detach the loop device from the file:
$ sudo losetup -d /dev/loopX
To compress the SD card image file use the following command:
$ gzip -9 imx8qm-var-som-extended-sd.img
To write the SD card image to a real SD card device use the following command:
$ zcat imx8qm-var-som-extended-sd.img.gz | sudo dd of=/dev/sdX bs=1M && sync
(Replace /dev/sdX with your actual SD device, e.g. /dev/sdb)
6 Boot the board with a bootable SD card
6.1 Setting the Boot Mode
Make sure the BOOT SELECT DIP switch on the carrier board is set correctly before you power on the board.
SW3 on VAR-SOM-MX8, SW6 on SPEAR-MX8 0 : Boot from SD card 1 : Boot from eMMC (Internal)